Research Facilities and Resources

Graphene Growth, Preparation and Characterization

  • 200 m2 class 1000 clean room



  • CVD system for the growth of graphene and other 2D materials (homemade and customized).
  • Raman Confocal Spectrometer (WITec Alpha 300R, with 488nm, 532nm and 633nm laser lines.
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (JEOL – JSM-7800F, including: microammeter, beam blanking & nanometer pattern generation system, X-ray microanalysis system).
  • Atomic-Force Microscope (Bruker – Dimension Icon). 
  • Benchtop Scanning Electron Microscope (Hitachi – TM-3000)
  • Oxygen plasma etcher (SPI Supplies – Plasma Prep III Etcher).
  • Nitrogen environment glove box.
  • Optical microscopes (Olympus)
  • Several spin coaters.


The Photonics laboratories at MackGraphe have points of presence in the two high-speed fiber optic testbeds in Brazil (the GIGA and the Kyatera testbeds). In both cases, lit and dark fibers are available, allowing for tests both in the application and the physical layers. Furthermore, the following resources are available (only main items listed):

  • 10 mechanically isolated optical tables (Newport)

  • Sub-nanosecond Q-switched lasers at 1060nm, 532nm and 266nm (TEEM Photonics)
  • 1 Modular mode-locked fiber laser system providing 100-fs pulses at 1550nm, a supercontinuum spectrum and 30-fs tunable pulses in the 1000-1400nm range (Toptica – FFS.SYS.COMP)
  • Single-mode fiber lasers and amplifiers with output powers up to 4W
  • 1 High-power supercontinuum source covering the 400-2400 nm range (NKT – SuperK EXTREME EXB-1)

  • 1 Solid-state mid-infrared laser, tunable in the 2-3 m range (IPG Photonics NLTL-Cr:ZnS/Se-2500-1000-100)
  • 1 CO2 laser at 10 um with up to 10W power (Synrad – 48-1KAL)
  • Several home-built actively and passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber lasers.
  • Several semiconductor lasers, including an external cavity tunable laser.
  • 3 Optical spectrum analyzers covering the visible and near infrared (Yokogawa and Agilent)
  • 3 Second-harmonic autocorrelators (Femtochrome).
  • Microwave generators covering the 9kHz-40GHz ranges (Rohde&Schwarz)
  • Several optical (phase/amplitude) modulators with up to 40 GHz bandwidth.
  • Several digital oscilloscopes with response up to 50 GHz (Tektronix and Agilent)
  • 1 Optical frequency domain reflectometer (Luna – OBR 30m)
  • 1 Optical time domain reflectometer (Anritsu).
  • Several ultrafast detectors

  • Several powermeters covering the 200-10,000 nm and 10 ?W - 1W (Newport and Thorlabs)

  • 1 Beam Profiler covering the VIS-NIR-1550 nm range (Newport).
  • 1 High voltage source - 4kV (FUG).
  • Simulation and data analysis softwares (Comsol Multiphysics, VPI Transmission Maker, Matlab).
  • 3 Optical fiber fusion splicers (Fitel and Sumitomo)


  • 1 Potenciostat/Galvanostat PGSTAT 302N with Impedance mode (FRA32M) and current booster (BSTRT 10A) – Autolab Metrohm
  • Ultrasound Bath P30H (37 – 80KHz) – Elma
  • Potenciostat/Galvanostat PGSTAT 12 – Autolab Metrohm
  • µPotenciostat IME663 – Autolab Metrohm
  • Potenciostat/Galvanostat PGSTAT 204 with Impedance mode (FRA32M) (FRA32M) – Autolab Metrohm
  • Chromatographion 761 Basic IC – Metrohm/Pensalab.
  • Vacuum drying oven – Quimis

  • Digimed pHmeter DM-22.
  • Digimed condutivimeter DM3.
  • Thermo analyzer SDT-Q600 Simultaneous TGA/DSC




  • Size exclusion chromatograph (SEC), Viscoteck HT-GPC 350A Module. Operating with a refractive index detector and temperatures up to 150oC
  • Contact angle analyzer, Kruss DAS 100B. Operating with a chamber for temperatures up to 400oC
  • Mini-injection machine for plastics. Thermo Scientific, Haake Minijet Pro.
  • Mini twin screw extruder for plastics. Thermo Scientific Process 11.
  • Hot-press machine with temperature (heating) control. Solab, SL 11 model.
  • Hot-press machine with temperature (heating and cooling) control. Solab, SL 12/20 model.
  • Mini Fume hood with laminar flow, Quimis.