What is graphene? Graphene is a material formed solely of carbon atoms in a crystalline hexagonal lattice, and with only one atom thick. It was isolated for the first time in 2004 by researchers from the University of Manchester, UK. Graphene has extraordinary physical properties, setting records as thinnest material (only one-atom thick); with highest electrical conductivity; and strongest material. By these superlative physical properties, Prof. Andre Geim and Professor Kostya Novoselov from the University of Manchester were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010.